[New publication] The Journal of Internationalization and Localization: 6 (1)
The Journal of Internationalization and Localization: 6 (1)
Transferring web accessibility through localization and internationalization standards, by Jesús Torres del Rey and Lucía Morado Vázquez
Abstract: In recent years, translation and localization studies have started to include accessibility, and web accessibility in particular, as one of the key aspects to take into consideration when adapting a web product to another language and culture (web localization). This paper provides a comprehensive insight of the connections between these two fields and concepts and, above all, it discusses the possibility of transferring accessibility throughout the localization process. In particular, we analyze how the use of current localization and internationalization data exchange standards is connected to this notion of transfer, and how those standards may be capable of transferring accessibility qualities or information, or supporting localizers in their task. Finally, we present an analytical and pragmatic approach to explore this transferability challenge, which includes the study of the techniques proposed by the W3C to help web developers fulfil a set of success criteria that are included in the latest Web Content Accessibility Guidelines (WCAG) 2.1, in relation to their possible integration in localization and internationalization standards.
Culture and persuasive discourse in localized NGO websites, by Parthena Charalampidou
Abstract: Non-governmental organisations set different goals than for-profit corporations. However, they need to be advertised in order to keep working. One of the basic means NGOs use in order to attract volunteers and donators is their website. Although the English language is considered as the lingua franca of the internet it seems to be inadequate when a global audience is aimed at. NGOs seem to have realized the need to communicate with potential donators or volunteers in their native language and have started providing localized versions of their websites. In this paper we are going to examine the persuasive discourse adopted by NGOs in their English, French and Greek website versions. According to Aristotle (Rhetoric, 1356a) (2002) the three persuasive techniques used to change the audience’s beliefs are (a) pathos, which appeals to the audience’s emotions, (b) ethos, which establishes the good “character” and credibility of the author and (c) logos, which uses logic and evidence to convince the audience. Our aim is to examine both the use and the multisemiotic realization of the above mentioned techniques in different cultural contexts. For the needs of our analysis we will adopt methodological tools from the field of social semiotics (image and text relation (Barthes 2007) and the grammar of visual design and of colours (Kress and Van Leeuwen 1996, 2002). Translational theories such as Skopos theory (Reiss and Vermeer 1984; Nord 1997) will provide the theoretical framework for the study of the adaptation techniques and strategies adopted when the Greek audience is addressed.
Crowdsourcing localisation for non-profit projects, by Tabea De Wille, Reinhard Schäler, Chris Exton and Geraldine Exton
Abstract: Trommons is an open-source, web-based platform administered by The Rosetta Foundation. The Rosetta Foundation has worked since 2009 to eradicate the information gap faced by communities under-served by commercial localisation, by making information accessible in the languages of those communities. In recent years we have conducted several studies into crowdsourced volunteer translation from the perspective of the client organisations. In this paper we are reporting on the finding of those studies, which include two survey questionnaires as well as semi-structured interviews with representatives of the non-profit organisations and staff at the Rosetta Foundation. The studies conducted provide insights into the following questions: Do organisations work with volunteers, and why? What reasons would make them not work with volunteers? What expectations do organisations have of volunteers, as well as a platform like Trommons, and are those expectations being met? What are the interactions between organisations and staff at the Rosetta Foundation?