[New publication] International Journal of Language Translation and Intercultural Communication: Volume 8, 2019

International Journal of Language Translation and Intercultural Communication: Volume 8, 2019

Link: https://ejournals.epublishing.ekt.gr/index.php/latic/issue/view/1252/showToc

Guest Editor’s Foreword, by Verónica Arnáiz-Uzquiza and Christos Stavrou
Audiovisual Translation appeared as a term in the academia in the 1980s and according to Gambier (1996) ‘AVT has benefited from the rapid development of research interest and of institutional commitment, even though the field remains essentially European. Undoubtedly, the particular scientific field has nowadays become a discipline thanks to the European Association of Studies in Screen Translation (ESIST), A growing number of specialized scientific conferences, from the first Languages and the Media series, to the biannual Media for All, and, more recently, the Intermedia series, have now become a meeting point for researchers, language practitioners, translators, interpreters, broadcasters, government agencies, support groups, and the Audiovisual Translation (AVT) and media accessibility (MA) industry. Similarly, a number of research groups have also emerged in different national and international contexts: the Intermedia research group, whose aim is to contribute to research on AVT by conducting experimental studies, and by enhancing research on media accessibility; or the Transmedia Research Group, focused on reinforcing research on the various genres of AVT, specially through user tests and technological implementation, are but two of the groups that, at a European level, are now promoting research in the discipline. Last, but not least, the brand new Journal of Audiovisual Translation (JAT), which constitutes the world’s first free, open access, online, double blind peer -reviewed journal dedicated to AVT, has already become a reference-point / meeting point for state of the art research on AVT and Media Accessibility.
The 8th issue of the Journal of Language, Translation and Intercultural Communication is titled “AVT as a Bridge for Communication: From Language Learning to Accessibility” and tries to contribute to the research in AVT with a special focus on the role of Audiovisual Translation in language learning, language acquisition and in accessibility. We are proud to present the first issue of this journal associated with this discipline, that includes a number of contributions by some established scholars on the field, and, even though all the papers have been subject to a double blind peer review process, there is a representative selection of papers, theoretical discussions, case studies and reflections on MA and AVT practice.
Ragia Hamdy Hassan and Josélia Neves’s contribution is an An interdisciplinary case study run in Qatar that examines the impact of using enriched subtitling (ES), within a total communication (TC) holistic approach to language learning, on the acquisition of vocabulary by deaf and hard of hearing (DHH) students. It aims to promote ES as a valuable tool to enhance vocabulary acquisition by deaf students.
As a good example of how Audiovisual Accessibility can be seen not only as a means of providing access for people with sensory impairments (Orero, 2004)2 but also as a way of providing linguistic accessibility, Anna Jankowska’s paper contributes to the particular trend through a survey-based study which is set out to find out preferences regarding linguistic accessibility in cinema among unimpaired senior citizens in Poland.
One of the core genres of AVT, subtitling, is studied in Kristijan Nikolic’s paper, which constitutes a study of the corpus of Croatian subtitles of a TV series. The particular paper aims to highlight that the nature of interlingual subtitles is defined by a variety of circumstances existing during their creation.
Emmanouela Patiniotaki’s paper aims to introduce a serious research path in Audiovisual Accessibility and Accessible Education by bringing together Access Services and Universal Design for Learning. The author proposes a new holistic approach to accessible learning environments.
Najwa Hamaoui and Christos Stavrou’s paper aims to present a strategy providing accessibility to all European citizens in Audiovisual Media and Heritage. The authors underline the needs and the values of an adapted methodology for training inter-cultural mediators.
Anastasia Beltramello’s paper is a study with a special focus on the use of subtitling and revoicing tasks as didactic tools. Beltramello introduces an innovative teaching methodology by taking into account the linguistic richness of audiovisual texts and their role in maximizing learning opportunities in the foreign language classroom.
Patrizia Giampieri’s paper is a case study where she highlights the crucial role of subtitling in second language acquisition. The author presents a trial lesson where students are exposed to authentic language and where they manage to increase their L2 knowledge through inferring tasks.
Finally, closing the volume, Babak Khoshnevisan presents a qualitative study where he explores the perceptions of Iranian language learners on idiom acquisition by using multimodality. Despite the fact that literature in the particular field is sparse, the author achieves to address this gap and to highlight the role of translation in facilitating idiom acquisition.

Teaching Vocabulary to Deaf Students Through Enriched Subtitling: A Case Study in Qatar, by RAGIA HAMDY HASSAN, JOSELIA NEVES

Abstract: This interdisciplinary study examines the impact of using enriched subtitling (ES), within a total communication (TC) holistic approach to language learning, on the acquisition of vocabulary by deaf and hard of hearing (DHH) students. The performance of the students in an experimental class, using an ES-based lesson, was compared to two classes using traditional educational methods, focusing on text reading and sign language. The classes were followed by three tests, one immediately after the class, and two other delayed tests, a day and a week later. Qualitative and quantitative data was collected and triangulated through class observations, student feedback, test results, focus group discussions, and interviews. Test results showed that the experimental class achieved the best results, supporting the research hypothesis that, when integrated in carefully planned lessons, ES can be a valuable tool to enhance vocabulary acquisition by deaf students.

Accessibility Mainstreaming and Beyond – Senior Citizens as Secondary Users of Audio Subtitles in Cinemas, by ANNA JANKOWSKA

Abstract: Audiovisual accessibility is traditionally seen as a means of providing access for people with sensory impairments, be it sight or hearing loss (Orero, 2004). Recently, a much broader perspective opened as some also see it as a way of providing linguistic accessibility (Díaz Cintas, 2005; Orero & Matamala, 2007) or even as services that cater for the specific needs of people who “cannot, or cannot properly, access the audiovisual content in its original form” (Greco, 2016: 23). This article fits squarely into this trend as it reports on a survey-based study set out to find out preferences regarding linguistic accessibility in the cinema among unimpaired senior citizens in Poland. On the whole, 40 people aged 60 or more took part in the study. Results show that senior citizens are more likely to choose voice-over and dubbing over subtitling. This could be because the majority of participants declared that they experience discomfort or difficulties when reading subtitles. As a result, they are willing to use a mobile app that would enable them to listen to audio subtitles in the cinemas.

The Language of Interlingual Subtitles: Studying the f Word in Skins, by KRISTIJAN NIKOLIC

Abstract: The language of interlingual subtitles and the effect it has on viewers is a concern for viewers of subtitled audiovisual content, subtitlers, and SVOD1 services such as Netflix2, as well as other cable, national and commercial broadcasters that show subtitled content. Subtitles are a popular form of audiovisual translation and their usage is growing worldwide. Conveying conversational dialogues from one language via subtitles to another may not come without obstacles as subtitles are a reduced, written, form of text, where many features of conversational, spoken language may be lost. Skins, a British teenage series, containing fast-paced dialogues and slang, as well as an abundance of expletives, will be used as an illustration of this topic. The subtitling of only one expletive will be compared across all seven seasons of this television series, by analysing the opening episode of each season, against different circumstances in which particular seasons were subtitled. The study of the corpus of Croatian subtitles of this TV series, based on the analysis of the opening episode of each season of this TV series has been conducted. The article aims to show that the way subtitles are depends on how they were created, under what set of circumstances.

Towards the Joint Study of Access Services and Universal Design for Learning, by EMMANOUELA PATINIOTAKI

Abstract: Access services have been studied from various perspectives as types of Audiovisual Translation, including their role as tools for education, and foreign language learning in particular, when audiovisual material is used for learning purposes. This paper aims to introduce a research path in audiovisual accessibility, from an Audiovisual Translation point of view, and accessible education by joining the dots between Access Services and Universal Design for Learning, with the aim to propose a holistic approach to accessible learning environments. Within this context, both access services and Universal Design for Learning are seen as both functional and pedagogical tools that can be used to achieve education which satisfies the needs of all learners. The current contribution takes Subtitling for the D/deaf and the hard-of-hearing as an example of access services whose educational value has been established and investigates its potential role in an educational environment that has been based on the principles of Universal Design for Learning.

Intercultural Mediation and Accessibility in Heritage, by NAJWA KH HAMAOUI, CHRISTOS STAVROU

Abstract: This article aims to propose a strategy taking in consideration the accessibility of each European citizen to information in all its forms especially audio-visual Media and Heritage. It is known that interlingual mediators are playing a huge part in the world of Information and Communication with the involving difficulties of common core theory and training. Moreover, technology can be the ideal tool to enhance accessibility. Thus, mobile phone applications can offer sometimes both audio and visual content to Museum visitors as well as sign language and text. This part of our work clarifies the needs and the values of an adapted methodology for training. In addition, this project gives to inter-cultural mediators the opportunity to work and to research on different applications and software programs in screen-titling, dubbing, re-speaking and screen-titling for the Deaf and Hard of Hearing, audio description and to obtain a training at professional agencies as well as to present a final assistance of quality.

Exploring the Combination of Subtitling and Revoicing Tasks: A Proposal for Maximising Learning Opportunities in the Italian Language Classroom, by ANASTASIA BELTRAMELLO

Abstract: Research has proven that audiovisual translation as an instructional tool is certainly beneficial to the enhancement of language skills, mainly listening, reading and writing. The relationship between the pragmatics of audiovisual (AV) material and the way they are learned, is still a topic that requires more investigation. In this study, clips form an Italian TV series are exploited as context-rich scaffolding on which students can build up vocabulary and develop an awareness of L2 pragmatics. This article presents an innovative didactic methodology that capitalised on the linguistic richness of audiovisual texts and sees in subtitling and revoicing tasks a great didactic potential that provides students with numerous opportunities for learning vocabulary and L2 pragmatic. In the course proposed, exposure to AV input is integrated with subtitling and revoicing tasks as well as with multimodal analysis of the video clips in order to maximise learning opportunities in the FL classroom.

The Small Words of Film Spoken Language for Second Language Learning, by PATRIZIA GIAMPIERI

Abstract: Although being scripted, film dialogues are claimed to mirror natural spoken language. Exposing second language (L2) learners to instances of authentic language is reported to be stimulating and enjoyable. Amongst others, natural spoken discourse is hallmarked by discourse markers, which are small words, or prefabricated units, which constitute the bulk of native-like conversation. Helping students become acquainted with the small words of natural language can increase their perceived proficiency. In light of these argumentations, this paper is aimed at presenting a trial lesson with sixteen young adults who participated in a 2-hour class. During the class, they became acquainted with discourse markers, which were sourced from film dialogues. Students had firstly to infer their meanings and propose coherent translation candidates by recurring to their interlanguage. Then, they were prompted to search for translations in online language platforms. The paper findings highlight that the trial lesson was not only enjoyable and stimulating, but students felt that their L2 knowledge increased. Furthermore, they were stimulated by the inferring tasks and appreciated the word search. In some instances, students’ inferences outperformed dictionary results and online suggestions.

Spilling the Beans on Understanding English Idioms Using Multimodality: An Idiom Acquisition Technique for Iranian Language Learners, by BABAK KHOSHNEVISAN

Abstract: Idioms are ubiquitous in English language. Despite their ubiquity, learning idioms is a thorny issue for second language learners. Multiple researchers have scrutinized different aspects of idiom learning by second language learners: important factors in processing idioms in L2 (Cieślicka, 2015); the incorporation of technology in idiom learning (Khoshnevisan, 2018b); idiom assessment (Khoshnevisan, 2018a). A number of studies have been conducted concerning the application of the Idiom Diffusion Model—an L2 idiom processing model—to develop the idiomatic competence of learners, however, the pertinent literature is sparse: Greek, German, and French (Liontas, 1997); Greek (Katsarou, 2013); Korean (Türker, 2016). It turns out that the application of the model to Persian language learners is missing. To address the gap, the author conducted a qualitative study to explore the perceptions of Iranian language learners about using a website to learn idioms. The researcher employed an online questionnaire to delve into the learners’ perceptions. The findings imply that the majority of the participants used video and picture modules to arrive at the figurative meaning of the idiomatic phrases. However, in terms of semi and post-lexical idioms, most learners benefited from translations to decode the meanings. The findings corroborate the theory that translation facilitates learning idioms.