[New publication] Issue 30(2) of Parallèles (October 2018)

About Parallèles:

Founded in 1978, Parallèles is a scholarly journal that publishes high-quality original research in translation and interpreting, as well as other forms of multilingual and multimodal communication. It is published by the Faculty of Translation and Interpreting of the University of Geneva, Switzerland.

Parallèles is double-blind peer reviewed, open access and, since 2013, web-based only. The journal is published bi-annually – in April and October – and alternates between thematic and non-thematic issues. Special issue proposals are examined once a year. They should be submitted by October 1st, two and a half years prior to the expected publication date, via our online form. For non-thematic issues, submissions will be considered during a six-month window, from April to October, for publication in October of the following year. All articles accepted for publication are subject to comprehensive guidelines for reviewing, based on initial quality control by the Parallèles team, anonymous refereeing by at least two external experts, and consequent revision by authors as required.

Parallèles is a multilingual journal. We welcome contributions in English, French, German, Spanish and Italian, although the issues discussed may involve all languages and language combinations. English titles, abstracts and keywords are provided for all articles. The following types of submissions are welcome: original articles – empirical studies, literature reviews, theoretical articles – and book reviews. Article submissions should not exceed 8,000 words. They must be uploaded on the journal’s manuscript submission and review platform (see the submission page for details).

Articles and book reviews published in Parallèles are licensed under the Creative Commons License CC-BY 4.0 which permits use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium or format on the condition that the author(s) and Parallèles are appropriately credited as the original source. In this sense, copyright is retained by the author(s). No author fees are associated with publication.

The purpose of the Book review section is to discuss important publications (monographs and collective volumes) in the field, as well as introduce innovative works written in a range of languages, including minor ones, to a wider international readership. Book reviews should provide an accurate description of the contents of the book and critically assess its relative value with reference to similar works in the field. They should be between 700 and 1,500 words and will be solicited by the Editor-in-Chief.

Parallèles uses Compilatio to ensure the originality of all manuscripts submitted for publication. The journal is prepared to publish a correction or retraction if presented with convincing evidence that the substance of a published article is erroneous or unoriginal.

 

INDEXING

Parallèles is included in the following databases: Bibliography of Interpreting and Translation (BITRA), European Reference Index for the Humanities and Social Sciences (ERIH PLUS), Google Scholar, MLA International Bibliography (listed in the Directory of Periodicals), Translation Studies Bibliography (TSB).

 

Issue 30(2) of Parallèles (October 2018)

Reconstruire la britannitude : la traduction des clichés dans Expo 58 (Jonathan Coe) by Frédérique Brisset

Abstract: Expo 58 is a novel located in Brussels in 1958, at the heart of the World’s Fair. The protagonists include a pair of foolish British secret agents who speak mostly in clichés. Each and every line they utter reflects grotesque prejudices, via clichés used to assert the British supremacy; Coe exploits this rhetorical device for comic purposes but also as a way to render the uneasiness his country was facing in the middle of the Cold War. The aim of this article is to study how such a culturally loaded speech has been translated into the French edition of the book, knowing that clichés are typical of a very national spirit. Linguistically speaking, their form is also a challenge to the translator, as they are often built on fixed patterns and dead metaphors which usually do not have an exact equivalent in another language. Our case study draws on translation studies, reception theories and pragmatics to see if systematic choices can be observed throughout the novel, on a corpus of clichés compared with their translation by J. Kamoun, and to understand the strategies used in conveying similar effects onto the French readers.

 

Synonymy in the domain of migration: Sign of changing mentalities? by Elpida Loupaki

Abstract: The aim of this paper is to investigate the phenomenon of synonymy in the domain of migration terminology for the language pair English-Greek. Whereas traditional theory of terminology focuses on normalization and thus discourages the existence of synonymous terms, more recent studies using a socio-terminological perspective have demonstrated the presence and even the importance, at cognitive level, of different denominations for the same concept. This paper tries to explore another perspective of synonymy: by analyzing, both manually and automatically, a corpus of texts related to migration we examine the social and translational factors behind the proliferation of some synonyms and question whether their existence could be related with a change in mentalities to such a sensitive issue as migration.

 

Science popularization in English and translated Dutch patient information leaflets: specialized versus lay terminology and explicitation An Lambrechts &  Heidi Verplaetse

Abstract: Information in patient information leaflets (PILs) must be comprehensible for lay readers. For that purpose popularization strategies can be applied. These include explicitation of scientific terms as well as replacing scientific terms with lay terms. Increased comprehension may entail increased patient compliance, as a result of decreased uncertainty. We analyzed scientific versus lay medical terminology and other explicitation strategies as a measure for uncertainty avoidance (Hofstede, 2001) in a corpus of 12 English PILs and their Dutch translations. Although Dutch-speaking societies have a higher uncertainty avoidance index than English-speaking societies such as the UK, the Dutch PILs contain a similar number of instances of explicitation as the English PILs. But, uncertainty avoidance is reflected in an overall higher amount of lay terminology in the Dutch PILs, notably in section 4 (Possible side effects). From this it appears that terminology in the Dutch PILs of our corpus is oriented more towards a lay audience than that in the English PILs. However, the apparent higher scientific orientation of the English PILs may be related partially to the Latin-based origin of medical scientific terminology and the higher Latin-based character of general English terminology compared to Dutch, rather than a higher scientific orientation in the English PILs as such.

 

El uso de extranjerismos en audiodescripción. La opinión de los usuarios (The use of foreign words in audio description. The users’ opinions) by Raquel Sanz-Moreno

Abstract: The audio description script provides information about characters, places and actions that appear in a film, in order to allow blind or visually impaired audiences to construct a concrete idea of what is happening on the screen. Therefore, the words chosen to describe what is being shown condition the image that the receptors will create in their minds. However, what happens when the audio describer uses foreign words to describe distanced realities which are unfamiliar to the target audience and culture? The aim of this study is to gather the receptor’s opinions about the use of foreign words in audio description scripts. Firstly, we will stress the importance of reception studies in ongoing research. Then, after reviewing the need for precision in audio description, we will set out the stages and the methodology of this study, which is twofold: the first part derives from a descriptive analysis of foreign words in audio description, and the second part presents the users’ opinions. In general, the use of foreign words is preferred when the audience is familiar with the reality to which it refers; on the contrary, explicitation is needed to describe rare cultural elements.

 

Surmounting censorship in subtitles in the context of Turkey by Mehmet Şahin

Abstract: Growth in audiovisual translation (AVT) has increased rapidly in Turkey in the last two decades, due to the increasing demand for foreign productions. Both professional and amateur audiovisual translators are involved in the production of Turkish subtitles. The censorship policies in the country affect AV translation both as a process and a product. This study aims at outlining the general profile of AV translators, with a focus on fansubbers, and their views on censorship. Data were collected through an electronic survey completed by 107 translators, and correspondence through e-mail and telephone interviews with professional translators. The results suggest a high degree of censorship in Turkey for AV materials; translators for TV channels must abide by rules set forth by government institutions or employers. Subtitles by fansubbers available at online portals are closer to the original text, although with minor modifications due to personal preferences.

 

Intermodal coherence in audio descriptive guided tours for art museums by Silvia Soler Gallego

Abstract: The aim of this article is to propose a method for designing audio descriptive guided tours with tactile exploration in art museums. It draws on existing guidelines as well as on descriptive and theoretical studies of this intersemiotic translation modality, and is illustrated with materials designed for the Describing Sorolla tour held at the Sorolla Museum by Kaleidoscope, an orgnization dedicated to fostering universal access to culture. In order to give a detailed description of the method proposed, a semantic analysis of the audio description of one of the paintings selected for the visit is carried out. The results from this analysis are in turn discussed in relation to the tactile image used during the tour and the verbal instructions given for its exploration to provide a better understanding of intermodal coherence as an essential element of the method proposed to build this type of multimodal discourse.

 

La recherche en révision : portrait bibliométrique, questions de recherche et méthodologies (Research on revision at a glance: bibliometric overview, research questions and methodologies) by Isabelle S. Robert

Abstract: Revision, i.e. the verification of a translation by a reviser who is not the translator, is a common professional practice in major international institutions as well as in translation agencies. This has especially been the case ever since the publication of the European standard EN15038 on translation services, in which it is an integral part of the translation process, from order to delivery. But what about the place of revision in translation research? Have researchers taken a greater interest in the revision in view of the standing it was given by the profession? What are the main research themes and methodologies? These are the questions we will answer in this paper through an analysis of bibliometric data and a review of the literature on revision. Notably, the results reveal a craze for revision since the end of the 1990s, as well as an increase in experimental studies over the past ten years.

 

BOOK REVIEW: Díaz Cintas, Jorge & Nikolić, Kristijan (dir.). (2017). Fast-forwarding with audiovisual translation. Bristol: Multilingual Matters. Reviewed by Yves Gambier (In French)

Depuis près de trois décennies maintenant, le nombre de publications en traduction audiovisuelle (TAV) s’est accru de manière quasi exponentielle – non sans répétitions sur les sujets, les approches. Au moins, cette quantité a pu asseoir la TAV comme matière à réflexion, à discussion, à formation. A-t-on pour autant progressé dans ce domaine, c’est-à-dire connait-on mieux, en profondeur, les divers défis à relever quand on produit, on regarde des sous-titres, des doublages, quand on vise à rendre accessibles films et autres programmes AV, conférences de presse, vidéo, quand on essaie d’améliorer la productivité des traducteurs avec divers logiciels, y compris de traduction automatique ? Chacun répondra différemment à cette question, selon ses attentes et besoins. La compilation d’articles dans un volume collectif n’aide pas nécessairement à dynamiser la TAV comme champ de recherche. Ne serait-il pas plus bénéfique d’avoir moins d’ouvrages mais à la cohérence thématique et méthodologique renforcée, avec questions et analyses plus ciblées (par exemple sur l’oculométrie ou la réception en TAV) ? De telles questions se posent à la lecture du livre Fast-forwarding with audiovisual translation dont le contenu d’ensemble ne coïncide guère avec le titre. Sous-titrage, doublage, sous-titrage pour les sourds et malentendants (SDH, en anglais) et audiodescription sont les modalités de TAV offertes à la lecture. Mais où sont les changements rapides annoncés ? Certainement pas en abordant la censure dans le monde arabe (ch. 3), la lente émergence du SDH en Turquie (ch. 10) ou encore en développant des études de cas plutôt conventionnels (ch. 2 et 6).

L’ouvrage est divisé en quatre parties, chacune regroupant de deux à quatre chapitres, permettant ainsi de sélectionner au mieux ses lectures – sur le transfert de langue et culture (partie 1), sur la réception, surtout de sous-titres (partie 2), sur l’environnement professionnel (partie 3) et sur la dimension pédagogique de l’audiodescription et du sous-titrage (partie 4). Le tout est précédé d’une introduction qui rappelle les facteurs de changement (surtout technologiques) qui affectent le paysage AV et la TAV.

Les 12 contributions, pour moitié descriptives et pour moitié expérimentales, recourent à des méthodes diverses : interview, questionnaire, oculométrie, comparaison textuelle, étude lexicographique… qui reflètent la pluralité des approches en TAV, appliquées ici à des contextes diversifiés. Avec toujours cependant ce tropisme national dominant : la plupart des 18 auteurs (dont cinq affiliés en Pologne et quatre en Italie) se préoccupent d’abord de ce qui se passe sur leur territoire, même si la production, la transmission, la distribution, la réception AV font de plus en plus fi des frontières nationales, comme d’ailleurs un certain nombre d’agences de TAV. Ainsi Netflix, pour ne prendre qu’un exemple récent, peut rendre les épisodes d’un talkshow en 20 langues en moins d’une trentaine d’heures, sans parler des communautés de fans. Seul le chapitre 1 dans l’ouvrage en recension traite de ce saut multinational et multilingue, passant d’une source culturelle indienne, en hindi, à la diaspora aux États-Unis, pour finalement être doublé en italien : de Bollywood à Hollywood puis à la version italienne, diverses contraintes appellent différentes distributions, diverses audiences attendent diverses accommodations. On est loin d’une confrontation binaire, avec une langue de départ et une langue d’arrivée, pour un public supposé homogène.

Une ultime remarque suscitée par l’ouvrage recensé : les travaux en TAV ont pris leur distance avec la spéculation et les jugements de valeur, au fur et à mesure qu’ils suivaient les exigences scientifiques. Mais la tentation demeure encore de formuler des recommandations (voir les chapitres 2, 8, 9, 11, 12). La collaboration entre les industries de l’AV et le monde académique est une nécessité pour analyser les pratiques réelles. Est-ce pour autant à la recherche d’élaborer des guides, des instructions, des normes pour les milieux professionnels ? Les chercheurs peuvent fournir des analyses fines, justifiées, fondées sur des principes scientifiques et produire ainsi des documents de travail utiles aux divers agents de la production AV, de la TAV. Mais la logique de la recherche ne peut se confondre avec celle du marché, celle des conditions de travail et celle des différentes corporations qui constituent la dynamique de la TAV. Cette tentation de donner des conseils de la part des universitaires dans leurs productions de recherche est sans doute un point faible qui mériterait davantage de réflexions sur le rôle de chacun et les enjeux de la recherche.
En un mot, l’ouvrage collectif, comme d’autres du même genre, se caractérise par un mélange de textes disparates dont je retiendrai, personnellement, surtout le chapitre 1, déjà mentionné (malgré ses généralisations hâtives), le ch. 4 (logiquement structuré) à propos de l’impact du changement de plan sur la relecture éventuelle des sous-titres. Je retiendrai aussi le chapitre 7 (novateur car très peu d’études existent aujourd’hui sur le processus de doublage analysé par oculométrie, et dont les résultats sont clairement mis en relation avec d’autres, acquis dans d’autres conditions) et le ch. 9 (en dépit de son formalisme statistique outrancier, basé finalement sur un corpus de 48 petites annonces publiées dans 16 pays). DOI 10.17462/para.2018.02.08

Link to this issue: https://www.paralleles.unige.ch/files/7715/4045/4580/Paralleles_30-2_octobre2018.pdf

List of Reviewers 2017-2018:

Carmen Acuña

Jérôme Baudry

Christian Berner

Anne Condamines

Bénédicte Coste

Carmen Delgado Luchner

Luc van Doorslaer

Valérie Dullion

Annarita Felici

Mathilde Fontanet

Nazaret Fresno Cañada

Yves Gambier

Daniel Gile

Sonia Halimi

Lance Hewson

Catalina Jiménez

Francisco Lafarga

Elizabeth Marshman

Luciana Martínez

Iwona Mazur

Raquel Merino-Álvarez

Laura Mori

Elena Nardelli

Matilde Nisbeth Brøgger

David Orrego-Carmona

Silvia Parra Galiano

Fernando Prieto Ramos

Donatella Pulitano

Fabio Regattin

Celia Rico Pérez

Silvia Rodríguez Vázquez

Lucía Ruiz Rosendo

Raquel Sanz-Moreno

Rafael Schögler

Carsten Sinner

Silvia Soler Gallego

Vilelmini Sossoni

Carlos Teixeira

Dingkun Wang

Nicolas Zufferey

 

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