[New publication] 編譯論叢 (Translation and Compilation Review): Volume 12, No.1

編譯論叢 Translation and Compilation Review: 12 (1)

Link to this issue: http://ctr.naer.edu.tw/?fbclid=IwAR1zmHGUbhRpJR9lZ_COtv80ib3ZS5r0faXMTpTPL7kZHVAP8LeEdsoSF5Y

臺灣日語文學翻譯發展之現況與議題——以國立臺灣文學館出版品為中心 (The Current Situation of Taiwanese-Japanese Translation: Publications for the National Museum of Taiwan Literature) 黃意雯 (Yi-wen Huang)

本文係以國立臺灣文學館出版品為中心,探討臺灣日語文學翻譯出版之現 況與所面臨之挑戰,並藉此提出未來努力的可能方向。首先,本文認為中文與 日文並列應是較為適切的排版方式,除可方便讀者與研究者外,也可擴大臺灣 文學研究的領域與視野。此外,打字稿與翻譯稿的地位應並重,且需更加著力於校注與譯注工作上,因此作業流程中,除應制訂各類基準與方針外,也應採跨臺日、跨學界的集體合作方式來完成。最後,譯作等同創作,譯作價值等同學術論文;譯者等同作家,譯者地位等同論文發表者。唯有文壇、學界對譯作和譯者的價值有重新的認識,才能提升整體之翻譯品質,並將文學翻譯提高至翻譯文學的境界。

This article looks at the current situation of, and challenges faced by, the translation and publication of literature in Japanese in colonial Taiwan, and proposes possible directions for future publications of the National Museum of Taiwan Literature. Beyond helping readers and researchers who are already interested in, or involved with, this field, Taiwanese-Japanese translation can also broaden and deepen scholars’ understanding of Taiwan literary studies. Typescripts and translations should be given an equal status, and more emphasis should be placed on annotating and translating works. Moreover, in addition to the need to establish various benchmarks and guidelines, the workflow may be facilitated and more easily completed if there is more direct communication between Taiwan and Japan, and thus more cooperation. Finally, as we know, “translation” is a form of “creation”; the value of translation works is equivalent to academic papers; translators are like writers since they make important contributions to the literary world. As long as the literary world and the academic community recognize the value of translation works and translators, the overall quality of literature translation will improve, and “literary translation” can be promoted to the status of “translation literature.”

司徒雷登回憶錄《在華五十年》中譯本的意識形態與政治 (The Ideology and Politics of the Chinese
Translation of Fifty Years in China by John Leighton Stuart) 李明哲 (Ming-che Lee)

文化操縱學派認為,翻譯文學可能與譯入語其他並存系統(如政治制度)產生連繫,從而採取特定的規範、行為和政策,生產出為政治意識形態服務的作品,所有翻譯都是為了服務某種目的而操縱原文。當翻譯活動受到譯者或贊助者的政治意識形態所宰制,這類被統治階層劃分為合法的經典化文學,往往與歷史上的重大事件或特殊的時空背景擁有密不可分的關係。司徒雷登的《在華五十年》回憶錄,翔實記載了擔任美國駐華大使的他,於1946 到1952 年間,在中國大陸目睹的重大政、軍、外交事件的印象和評論,以及他對中國政界人物的看法。他對國共兩黨的評價各有褒貶,甚至對共產黨部分作為深表同情與讚揚,然而他卻對共產黨的意識形態嗤之以鼻。有鑑於此,臺灣中譯本很快就獲得出版機會,中國大陸則遲至1982 年。本論文旨在探討主導《在華五十年》中譯本出版的政治意識形態,並由譯文分析得出若干結論。

Manipulation theorists assume that translated literature can be correlated with other “co-systems” of the target culture, including the political system, given its attempt to adopt specific norms or policies so as to be subservient to the dominant political ideology. From this perspective, all translations are thought to deploy a certain degree of manipulation of the source text for a specific purpose. When translations are subject to the constraints of the ideologies of the translators or patrons in order to fit the target culture, the translated work will be categorized by the ruling class as being a legitimate member of this culture’s literary canon. This phenomenon is usually inseparable from major historical contexts. John Leighton Stuart’s memoir, Fifty Years in China, is not only a faithful account of what he had witnessed as former U.S. ambassador to China from 1946 to 1952, but it also records the major political, military and diplomatic occurrences in China along with his commentary on influential Chinese political figures. As a steadfast disciple of democratism, Stuart often expresses his sympathy with the Communist Party while at the same time making clear his detestation of Communist doctrines. Thus, while the Chinese translation of his memoir quickly appeared in Taiwan, unsurprisingly it was not until 1982 had it obtained approval for publication in China. This paper looks closely at the dominant political ideologies and different forms of patronage that made possible the Chinese translation of Fifty Years in China.

數位化時代深度翻譯在《茶經》翻譯中的創新應用 (An Innovative Application of Thick Translation in Translating The Classic of Tea in and for Our Digital Age) 龍明慧 (Minghui Long)

《茶經》是中國最著名的茶典籍,包含多個領域的知識,涉及中國古代大量歷史、地理、文化資訊,在翻譯過程中往往需要譯者在原文基礎上進行「深度翻譯」,以合適的方式增補涉及文化背景和專業知識的注釋資訊,幫助目標讀者理解。但深度翻譯若是運用不當,則很難實現該有的效果,有時還會產生一些負面影響。因此本文以《茶經》美國譯者法蘭西斯.羅斯.卡朋特的英譯本為例,分析深度翻譯在該譯本中的應用情況及其存在的一些問題,結合數位化時代新媒體技術的發展,探索《茶經》翻譯中深度翻譯的創新應用模式,提出超連結應用和整合圖片、音訊、影片等非語言媒介的深度翻譯策略,為適應當代讀者的閱讀習慣,實現更有效的跨文化傳播提供借鑒。

Chajing (The Classic of Tea), the best-known Chinese tea classic, is filled with background
information about Chinese culture, history, and geography. Therefore, thick translation—
that is, the inclusion of a further, more detailed and more professional understanding of tea—is clearly necessary in the English translation of this classic. However, improper thick translation may fail to have positive effects. Therefore, this paper, taking Francis Ross Carpenter’s English translation of The Classic of Tea as a case, explores the application of thick translation in general and the problems that may be created by the traditional practice of thick translation. Here, then, taking into account the ongoing development of new media in our digital age, an innovative model of thick translation is proposed which advocates the use of hyperlink and non-verbal resources like pictures, animations and audio-visual materials. It is believed that this new model may serve as a helpful starting point for the production of a translation that will better serve its targeted readers.

孰是孰非:歐立德《乾隆帝》一書中滿文翻譯的商榷 (Some Remarks on Mark Elliott’s Translation of the Manchu Sources in Emperor Qianlong: Son of Heaven, Man of the World) 甘德星 (Tak-sing Kam)

歐立德的近著《乾隆帝》中的滿文譯文惹來了中國大陸學者李勤璞的批評。但李勤璞的批評基本上是基於漢文翻譯本中的相關滿譯漢,而不是歐立德原來的英譯。本文將《乾隆帝》一書的英文原譯與李勤璞的批評相互比對,發現其中的問題,除了部分與譯者有關外,李勤璞的指摘並非無的放矢。

Mark Elliott’s translation of the Manchu sources in his recent work Emperor Qianlong has drawn criticism from the Chinese scholar Qinpu Li. However, Li’s critique is mainly based on the Chinese version of the same book, rather than on the original English translation from the Manchu. This paper looks at the English translations of the Manchu sources in Emperor Qianlong in the light of Qinpu Li’s criticisms, and finds that the problems involved are due as much to Mark Elliott as to the translator of Emperor Qianlong.

翻譯中的形象:《城南舊事》英譯本中之老北京形象 (Images in Translation: Old Peking in the English Translation of Memories of Peking: South Side Stories) 張梵 (Albert L. Chang)

本研究旨在利用形象學研究方法,探討臺灣作家林海音在《城南舊事》中所呈現的老北京形象,以及《城南舊事》之英文譯本所呈現之老北京形象是否與中文文本中的形象一致。為探索上述形象,本研究首先聚焦英文譯本,找出譯文中創造異國情調的詞彙,之後再追溯至中文文本,並檢查中文文本所呈現之形象。本研究藉助外部證據來確認中、英文本老北京形象之功能與來源是否一致。此外,林海音於書中也提到,希望能夠重現1920年代老北京城南的景色和人物,因此本研究也將探討英文譯本是否能達成此一目標。本研究所分析之形象,包含因人名、口音、行為與地名而呈現出之老北京形象。從形象學、翻譯學與敘事學角度分析,研究發現文學翻譯除關注文本用字遣詞外,文字以外所傳達之訊息同樣重要。在某些情況下,尤其涉及文化與方言之書寫時,英譯文本之含義,較原文變得狹窄。儘管如此,譯者靈活使用各種翻譯技巧,使得譯文保留必要訊息及精準度,提供讀者愉快且豐富的閱讀體驗。

This study uses methods from the field of imagology to explore the images of old Peking, as presented in the book Chengnanjiushi (Memories of Peking: South Side Stories) written by Taiwanese author Hai-yin Lin. The study will also try to determine whether the images presented in the English translation are consistent with those in the Chinese original. To identify these images, the study starts from the English translation, looking for words and phrases that will create an exotic feeling or atmosphere for English readers. These words and phrases are then traced back to the Chinese text, where the corresponding or associated images are examined. The functions and sources of these two sets of images are then compared with the aid of external evidence, in order to determine whether the images presented in the English translation are consistent with those in the Chinese original, so that the translation is able to achieve the goals of the author—to accurately portray the peoples and places of and in Peking during the 1920s. The images explored in this study include those conveyed or expressed by the names of characters and the accents, manners, and places that distinctly belong to old Peking. The study, then, uses the images presented in both the Chinese and the English texts to examine the translation of the source text. By analyzing the translation from imagological, translation-studies, and narrative perspectives, I argue that because literary translation is equally concerned with linguistic details and with what is “beyond the text,” in some instances, particularly where the depiction of cultures and dialects is concerned, there is a narrowing of meaning in the translation as compared to the original. Despite this familiar problem, the translators were able to use different translation strategies in order to achieve a necessary degree of precision in the English version, one that would give its readers a pleasurable and informative reading experience.

眾包翻譯之激勵性設計:從遊戲化角度探討臉書社群翻譯 (Motivational Design in Translation Crowdsourcing: A Gamification Approach to Facebook Community Translation) 陳雅玫 (Ya-mei Chen)

眾包翻譯是Web 2.0世代中興起之線上參與式翻譯活動。今日無論營利或非營利機構皆已廣泛使用眾包翻譯,以擴展國際觸角並達成商業或人道主義目標。眾包翻譯順利推行的關鍵在於激勵志願譯者之翻譯動機並維持其熱忱。先前研究雖已針對此激勵動機做過詳細探討,然僅從譯者角度出發。為深入以往未觸及之觀點,本文以臉書社群翻譯為個案,並採用遊戲化概念作為分析架構,從理論層面對此社群翻譯之激勵性設計做一剖析。分析結果顯示,臉書社群翻譯應用程式除了含括與遊戲成分類似的組成要素之外,亦蘊含一個三層面的激勵性設計(亦即動機考量、簡單化措施與觸發物)以強化組成要素的功能。臉書翻譯應用程式的設計符合有成效之遊戲化體制的條件,因而就理論層面而言,可協助臉書滿足其譯者的多樣化動機,並使譯者持續投入。然而實際運作時,此激勵性設計的成效則可能受以下因素之影響而削弱:(1)臉書的漠視態度或不回應之作法、(2)翻譯相關情境資訊之不足、(3)回饋機制之能見度受限。此外,亦可能引發相關道德爭議,例如阻礙臉書譯者的自主性與掩飾臉書的商業目的。為能充分發揮此激勵性設計之成效,並避免衍生道德議題,臉書應審慎關注上述影響因素並體現道德關照。

Translation crowdsourcing, an online participatory practice emerging in the Web 2.0 era, has been widely adopted by both for-profit and non-profit organizations to expand their global reach and achieve their commercial or humanitarian goals. The key to successful translation crowdsourcing lies in the ability to motivate volunteer translators. Previous studies have made a detailed inquiry into this motivational issue, mainly from the standpoint of the translators themselves. In order to offer complementary views on motivation, this paper takes Facebook community translation as the subject of a theoretical case study, and explores its motivational design based on insights drawn from gamification research. The analysis reveals that apart from having some game-like elements as its main components, Facebook’s translation application also contains a three-part motivational design—consisting of motivational considerations, simplification devices and triggers—to accompany these primary components. Such an arrangement fulfills the requirements of an effective gamified system, and in principle can assist Facebook in meeting the diverse motivational needs of its user-translators and keeping them engaged. The effects of this motivational design, however, may be diminished in actual practice by (1) Facebook’s inattentive and non-responsive attitude, (2) the lack of sufficient contextual information for the translation of the segments, and (3) the constrained visibility of the feedback mechanisms. In addition, some ethical problems may also arise here, such as jeopardizing the user-translators’ autonomy and obscuring Facebook’s commercial purposes. To maximize the effectiveness of this motivational design in an ethical way, Facebook should take into careful consideration these influencing factors and ethical issues.

 

 

 

 

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