[New publication] 編譯論叢 (Translation and Compilation Review): Volume 12, No.1
編譯論叢 Translation and Compilation Review: 12 (1)
臺灣日語文學翻譯發展之現況與議題——以國立臺灣文學館出版品為中心 (The Current Situation of Taiwanese-Japanese Translation: Publications for the National Museum of Taiwan Literature) 黃意雯 (Yi-wen Huang)
本文係以國立臺灣文學館出版品為中心，探討臺灣日語文學翻譯出版之現 況與所面臨之挑戰，並藉此提出未來努力的可能方向。首先，本文認為中文與 日文並列應是較為適切的排版方式，除可方便讀者與研究者外，也可擴大臺灣 文學研究的領域與視野。此外，打字稿與翻譯稿的地位應並重，且需更加著力於校注與譯注工作上，因此作業流程中，除應制訂各類基準與方針外，也應採跨臺日、跨學界的集體合作方式來完成。最後，譯作等同創作，譯作價值等同學術論文；譯者等同作家，譯者地位等同論文發表者。唯有文壇、學界對譯作和譯者的價值有重新的認識，才能提升整體之翻譯品質，並將文學翻譯提高至翻譯文學的境界。
This article looks at the current situation of, and challenges faced by, the translation and publication of literature in Japanese in colonial Taiwan, and proposes possible directions for future publications of the National Museum of Taiwan Literature. Beyond helping readers and researchers who are already interested in, or involved with, this field, Taiwanese-Japanese translation can also broaden and deepen scholars’ understanding of Taiwan literary studies. Typescripts and translations should be given an equal status, and more emphasis should be placed on annotating and translating works. Moreover, in addition to the need to establish various benchmarks and guidelines, the workflow may be facilitated and more easily completed if there is more direct communication between Taiwan and Japan, and thus more cooperation. Finally, as we know, “translation” is a form of “creation”; the value of translation works is equivalent to academic papers; translators are like writers since they make important contributions to the literary world. As long as the literary world and the academic community recognize the value of translation works and translators, the overall quality of literature translation will improve, and “literary translation” can be promoted to the status of “translation literature.”
司徒雷登回憶錄《在華五十年》中譯本的意識形態與政治 (The Ideology and Politics of the Chinese
Translation of Fifty Years in China by John Leighton Stuart) 李明哲 (Ming-che Lee)
文化操縱學派認為，翻譯文學可能與譯入語其他並存系統（如政治制度）產生連繫，從而採取特定的規範、行為和政策，生產出為政治意識形態服務的作品，所有翻譯都是為了服務某種目的而操縱原文。當翻譯活動受到譯者或贊助者的政治意識形態所宰制，這類被統治階層劃分為合法的經典化文學，往往與歷史上的重大事件或特殊的時空背景擁有密不可分的關係。司徒雷登的《在華五十年》回憶錄，翔實記載了擔任美國駐華大使的他，於1946 到1952 年間，在中國大陸目睹的重大政、軍、外交事件的印象和評論，以及他對中國政界人物的看法。他對國共兩黨的評價各有褒貶，甚至對共產黨部分作為深表同情與讚揚，然而他卻對共產黨的意識形態嗤之以鼻。有鑑於此，臺灣中譯本很快就獲得出版機會，中國大陸則遲至1982 年。本論文旨在探討主導《在華五十年》中譯本出版的政治意識形態，並由譯文分析得出若干結論。
Manipulation theorists assume that translated literature can be correlated with other “co-systems” of the target culture, including the political system, given its attempt to adopt specific norms or policies so as to be subservient to the dominant political ideology. From this perspective, all translations are thought to deploy a certain degree of manipulation of the source text for a specific purpose. When translations are subject to the constraints of the ideologies of the translators or patrons in order to fit the target culture, the translated work will be categorized by the ruling class as being a legitimate member of this culture’s literary canon. This phenomenon is usually inseparable from major historical contexts. John Leighton Stuart’s memoir, Fifty Years in China, is not only a faithful account of what he had witnessed as former U.S. ambassador to China from 1946 to 1952, but it also records the major political, military and diplomatic occurrences in China along with his commentary on influential Chinese political figures. As a steadfast disciple of democratism, Stuart often expresses his sympathy with the Communist Party while at the same time making clear his detestation of Communist doctrines. Thus, while the Chinese translation of his memoir quickly appeared in Taiwan, unsurprisingly it was not until 1982 had it obtained approval for publication in China. This paper looks closely at the dominant political ideologies and different forms of patronage that made possible the Chinese translation of Fifty Years in China.
數位化時代深度翻譯在《茶經》翻譯中的創新應用 (An Innovative Application of Thick Translation in Translating The Classic of Tea in and for Our Digital Age) 龍明慧 (Minghui Long)
Chajing (The Classic of Tea), the best-known Chinese tea classic, is filled with background
information about Chinese culture, history, and geography. Therefore, thick translation—
that is, the inclusion of a further, more detailed and more professional understanding of tea—is clearly necessary in the English translation of this classic. However, improper thick translation may fail to have positive effects. Therefore, this paper, taking Francis Ross Carpenter’s English translation of The Classic of Tea as a case, explores the application of thick translation in general and the problems that may be created by the traditional practice of thick translation. Here, then, taking into account the ongoing development of new media in our digital age, an innovative model of thick translation is proposed which advocates the use of hyperlink and non-verbal resources like pictures, animations and audio-visual materials. It is believed that this new model may serve as a helpful starting point for the production of a translation that will better serve its targeted readers.
孰是孰非：歐立德《乾隆帝》一書中滿文翻譯的商榷 (Some Remarks on Mark Elliott’s Translation of the Manchu Sources in Emperor Qianlong: Son of Heaven, Man of the World) 甘德星 (Tak-sing Kam)
Mark Elliott’s translation of the Manchu sources in his recent work Emperor Qianlong has drawn criticism from the Chinese scholar Qinpu Li. However, Li’s critique is mainly based on the Chinese version of the same book, rather than on the original English translation from the Manchu. This paper looks at the English translations of the Manchu sources in Emperor Qianlong in the light of Qinpu Li’s criticisms, and finds that the problems involved are due as much to Mark Elliott as to the translator of Emperor Qianlong.
翻譯中的形象：《城南舊事》英譯本中之老北京形象 (Images in Translation: Old Peking in the English Translation of Memories of Peking: South Side Stories) 張梵 (Albert L. Chang)
This study uses methods from the field of imagology to explore the images of old Peking, as presented in the book Chengnanjiushi (Memories of Peking: South Side Stories) written by Taiwanese author Hai-yin Lin. The study will also try to determine whether the images presented in the English translation are consistent with those in the Chinese original. To identify these images, the study starts from the English translation, looking for words and phrases that will create an exotic feeling or atmosphere for English readers. These words and phrases are then traced back to the Chinese text, where the corresponding or associated images are examined. The functions and sources of these two sets of images are then compared with the aid of external evidence, in order to determine whether the images presented in the English translation are consistent with those in the Chinese original, so that the translation is able to achieve the goals of the author—to accurately portray the peoples and places of and in Peking during the 1920s. The images explored in this study include those conveyed or expressed by the names of characters and the accents, manners, and places that distinctly belong to old Peking. The study, then, uses the images presented in both the Chinese and the English texts to examine the translation of the source text. By analyzing the translation from imagological, translation-studies, and narrative perspectives, I argue that because literary translation is equally concerned with linguistic details and with what is “beyond the text,” in some instances, particularly where the depiction of cultures and dialects is concerned, there is a narrowing of meaning in the translation as compared to the original. Despite this familiar problem, the translators were able to use different translation strategies in order to achieve a necessary degree of precision in the English version, one that would give its readers a pleasurable and informative reading experience.
眾包翻譯之激勵性設計：從遊戲化角度探討臉書社群翻譯 (Motivational Design in Translation Crowdsourcing: A Gamification Approach to Facebook Community Translation) 陳雅玫 (Ya-mei Chen)
Translation crowdsourcing, an online participatory practice emerging in the Web 2.0 era, has been widely adopted by both for-profit and non-profit organizations to expand their global reach and achieve their commercial or humanitarian goals. The key to successful translation crowdsourcing lies in the ability to motivate volunteer translators. Previous studies have made a detailed inquiry into this motivational issue, mainly from the standpoint of the translators themselves. In order to offer complementary views on motivation, this paper takes Facebook community translation as the subject of a theoretical case study, and explores its motivational design based on insights drawn from gamification research. The analysis reveals that apart from having some game-like elements as its main components, Facebook’s translation application also contains a three-part motivational design—consisting of motivational considerations, simplification devices and triggers—to accompany these primary components. Such an arrangement fulfills the requirements of an effective gamified system, and in principle can assist Facebook in meeting the diverse motivational needs of its user-translators and keeping them engaged. The effects of this motivational design, however, may be diminished in actual practice by (1) Facebook’s inattentive and non-responsive attitude, (2) the lack of sufficient contextual information for the translation of the segments, and (3) the constrained visibility of the feedback mechanisms. In addition, some ethical problems may also arise here, such as jeopardizing the user-translators’ autonomy and obscuring Facebook’s commercial purposes. To maximize the effectiveness of this motivational design in an ethical way, Facebook should take into careful consideration these influencing factors and ethical issues.