[New publication] 編譯論叢: 第十一卷 第二期( 2018 年 9 月)Compilation and Translation Review, 11(2)

編譯論叢: 第十一卷 第二期( 2018 年 9 月)Compilation and Translation Review, 11(2)

Link: http://ctr.naer.edu.tw/

中華獨立美術協會與早期「超現實主義」譯介 陳慶 (The Chinese Independent Art Association and the Early Translation of “Surrealism” in China by Qing Chen)
中華獨立美術協會不僅是民國時期重要的前衛美術社團,也是中國第一個全面譯介「超現實主義」的群體。在他們將這個域外藝術觀念譯介入中國的過程中,最為明顯的特徵是在「超現實主義」的語義層中加入「現實性」這個當時中國美術界的進步話語,從而令這場原本旨在譯介域外新銳美術觀念的行動,演變成一場針對專有名詞的改造。然而,這一改造卻使得被譯介入中國的「超現實主義」語義含混,指向曖昧,反而割裂了它與當時本土的美術語境形成互動與溝通的可能,並成為中華獨立美術協會過早解散的內在深層原因。
The Chinese Independent Art Association not only became an important avant-garde art association during the Republican period after 1912, but it was also the first group to carry out the full-scale translation and introduction of “surrealism” in and to China. In order to “translate” this foreign art form for the Chinese, scholars needed to include the new (Western) discussions of “realism” in order better to explain “surrealism”. Translating the avant-garde art concept of “surrealism” thus first meant translating the concept of “realism”. This led, however, to a semantically ambiguous and vague conception of “Chinese Surrealism”, thus hindering a deeper communication and interaction with the local art context at that time. Consequently, it became the underlying reason for the dissolution of the Chinese Independent Art Association.
線上機器翻譯:東南亞新住民語言服務芻議 史宗玲 (A Probe into the Language Service of Online Machine Translation for Southeast Asian Immigrants by Chung-ling Shih)
本文研究動機緣起於近年來東南亞新住民在臺灣人口快速成長,卻缺乏以其母語提供網路資訊的平台,另則線上統計式機譯系統翻譯品質已大幅改善,可以成為多語服務的媒介,因而思考如何使用線上機器翻譯來做為提供東南亞新住民語言服務的平台。本研究首先採用文獻考察及初探性調查,探討何以線上機譯系統可以成為移民線上資訊取得之輔助工具,接著採用訪談方式進行機譯品質評估,證實前編措施確實能夠幫助東南亞新住民對其母語(越南語及印尼語)機譯內容大意之了解。最後再探究機譯語言服務所彰顯的語言人權及民主意涵。本研究藉由訪談四位越南籍人士和三位印尼籍人士,就其對母語機器譯文大意理做分析,結果顯示越南籍及印尼籍受訪人士之理解程度皆達到八成以上;受訪者表示,只要網站能提供八成以上理解度之機器譯文,他們願意利用機器翻譯工具來擷取更多臺灣社會與文化的相關資訊。有鑑於此,
作者建議臺灣網頁文本可增加控制性中文書寫版本,以利提供東南亞新住民友善的線上機譯服務,此種語言服務在東南亞新住民已佔有相當比例的臺灣社會中,可彰顯其人權意涵,如語言平權、多元文化主義與庶民語言運動。
This article looks at the use of online machine translation (MT) to provide language service to Southeast Asian immigrants in Taiwan. Its motivation is twofold: (a)Taiwan’s immigrant population has been growing in recent years and yet the immigrants still lack a web-based information service, and (b) there has been a significant improvement in the online statistical MT systems’ capacity for automated translation. This research began with a review of the MT-relevant literature and a pilot investigation, followed by an interview-based survey to demonstrate how pre-editing using controlled Chinese helped Vietnamese and Indonesian audiences to understand the gist of MT outputs. It concluded with a probe into the implications of online-MT-enabled language services. The findings of the MT-based comprehensibility survey showed that an average score of more than 80% earned by Vietnamese and Indonesian interviewees supported the effectiveness of pre-editing in improving MT performance. Meanwhile, all the interviewees expressed that they would use the MT tool to access Taiwan’s sociocultural information, since the gist of MT outputs was more than 80% comprehensible. Thus, besides natural Chinese web-texts, controlled Chinese web-texts can be supplemented, and so Southeast Asian immigrants will be able to read the MT outputs for the purpose of information mining and knowledge acquisition. Despite the small samples used in this research project, the positive findings have shed light on some humanistic issues: equal language rights, multi-culturalsim, and the “civic language” campaign. The importance of controlled-Chinese-enabled MT service cannot be
overlooked in Taiwan’s contemporary society as Southeast Asian immigrants now constitute a significant part of Taiwan’s population.
梅維恆《道德經》英譯:副文本之文化翻譯探討 陳致宏 (A Cultural-Translation Study of Paratexts via Victor H. Mair’s English Translation of the Tao Te Ching by Chih-hong Rudy Chen)
本文透過觀察當代權威漢學家及文字學家梅維恆(Victor H. Mair)之《道德經》英譯本,檢視其試圖將具有中文文化特殊性(culture-bound)之宗教哲學(religiophilosophical)詞彙,例如其核心概念「道」、「德」與「經」在翻譯上達成跨文化語意轉換上所採取之詮釋考量及手法,可見於其副文本
(paratexts)之大量使用,並探討其翻譯學上之文化翻譯(cultural translation)相關課題。本文首先將其置於阿派爾(Kwame Anthony Appiah)的「厚實翻譯」(thick translation)視角下觀察,以利於透過如附註(annotations)及其他學術文本形式的副文本等語言活動應用於跨文化之間的理解,即阿派爾所謂「學術翻譯」。接著,再將特定之副文本元素透過勒菲弗爾(André Lefevere)之意
識形態(ideology)與韋努第(Lawrence Venuti)之異化(foreignization)及譯者能見度(visibility)之視角下觀察,以理解譯者在不同語言及文化間處理語意時之外部影響因素。本文期盼透過文化翻譯之檢視方式,探討梅維恆使用大量前言、注釋及附錄進行翻譯之《道德經》英譯本,能更深入理解賦予於學者型譯者(scholar-translator)的責任及其翻譯過程中之各種考量,以提供古文經典翻譯中原意呈現之跨文化轉換知見。
This paper looks at the authoritative sinologist and philologist Victor H. Mair’s English translation of the Tao Te Ching. It examines Mair’s use of paratexts to support his cross-cultural transfer of such highly Chinese-culture-bound religious and philosophical terms as Tao, Te and Ching from the Chinese source text into English. More specifically, it looks at Mair’s interpretative assumptions as well as methodologies. This brings into play several relevant issues with regard to the role of cultural translation within the wider field of translation studies. Firstly, the paper explores Kwame Anthony Appiah’s “thick translation” approach, and such cross-cultural linguistic practices as the use of annotations and of other forms of scholarly paratexts, in order that (in Appiah’s words) an “academic’ translation” is produced. Secondly, selected elements of these paratexts are examined in the light of André Lefevere’s notion of ideology and Lawrence Venuti’s notions of foreignization and visibility, to help us better understand the external factors requiring Mair’s careful considerations in the “transaction” of meaning across languages and cultures. This cultural translation study on Mair’s translation of the Tao Te Ching with extensive preface, annotations and back matter seeks to shed light, then, on the depth and complexity of the art of cultural-translation, itself so vital to cross-cultural understanding.

譯者決策過程及合作模式之探討以白樺的《遠方有個女兒國》為例 李姿儀 (Translators’ Collaboration and Decision-Making in the Case of Bai Hua’s The Remote Country of Women by Tzu-yi Elaine Lee)
在翻譯研究中,譯者手稿是研究譯者決策過程的最佳來源,但譯者手稿等第一手資料,卻常因無法取得而受到忽略。中國作家白樺的《遠方有個女兒國》,一般被認為是帶有強烈女性主義烏托邦色彩的小說,但受到政治因素影響,此作品鮮為人知,更鮮少作為研究素材。本研究的重點是從《遠方有個女兒國》的譯者手稿以及出版譯作,來探討譯者的決策過程。筆者在有限的手稿中進行分析比較,討論譯者從一開始與最後定稿選用的字詞,如何影響段落話語與思想的表達方式,並影響英譯本的生動程度。除了譯本分析之外,筆者更進一步親自訪談譯者,理解兩位譯者的合作模式,並聯繫收錄《遠方有個女兒國》英譯本《現代中國小說叢書》(Fictions from Modern China)總審定葛浩文(Howard Goldblatt)先生了解書出版流程。最後,本論文探討譯者分工模式以及在翻譯場域裡擁有的權力及資本。
蘇曼殊英文能力之再議 強勇傑 (Su Manshu’s English Prof iciency Reexamined Ivan Yung-chieh Chiang)
在中國翻譯史上,蘇曼殊向來被視為當代罕見的語言天才,有關蘇氏的傳記中常提及蘇氏精通中、英、日、法、梵五種語言,但這種說法似乎是互相流傳所形成的結果,其背後的根據有待進一步釐清。本論文以蘇氏的英文能力為研究重點,檢視蘇氏涉及英文的文本來判斷蘇氏的英文能力。經篩選而得二部較能顯示蘇氏英文能力的關鍵作品:其一為1903 年連載於國民日日報、1904 年單行出版的《慘世界》,該作品係根據雨果(V. M. Hugo)小說《悲慘世界》(Les Misérables)的英譯本所譯成,可用於檢視蘇氏的英文閱讀理解力;其二為1909 年的〈潮音自序〉,該作品係蘇氏為其英漢文學與翻譯選集《潮音》而寫的英文序言,可用於檢視蘇氏的英文寫作能力。研究結果發現矛盾的現象:從〈潮音自序〉流暢自然且深奧的英文表達,顯見作者的英文能力幾無異於受過良好教育的母語人士,但從《慘世界》中譯裡所見到的諸多理解錯誤,又指向蘇氏的英文能力有不少基本問題。本論文試圖解釋這種矛盾現象,從蘇氏學習英文的經歷,佐以誤譯問題的分析,提出英文文筆流暢的〈潮音自序〉係由母語人士潤飾過的可能性,最後歸納出蘇曼殊的英文程度應未達傳記所述的精通程度:蘇氏的英文程度,讀懂英文小說的大意與劇情或許尚可,但更細緻的語言掌握,就可能力有未逮。不過,本研究無意否定蘇氏的英文素養,重點僅在澄清蘇氏的英文能力,指出傳記中有關蘇氏英文能力誇大的陳述。
In the history of translation in China, Su Manshu has been acclaimed as a rare language genius, proficient in Chinese, English, Japanese, French, and Sanskrit. However, this view of him seems to have been passed down from one biographer to another too easily, and needs to be looked at more closely. This paper seeks to judge how proficient Su actually was in English by examining his performance in his two most representative English-related works. The first is The Miserable World, which was published separately in 1904 after being serialized in The China National Gazette in 1903. Translated from an English version of Hugo’s Les Misérables, this work can be used to evaluate Su’s English comprehension. The other is an English preface written in 1909 for the anthology Voices of the Tide, a collection of some Chinese and English literary works both in the original and in translation. While the “Preface to Voices of the Tide” is superbly written, displaying an exquisite literary style that demonstrates a native speaker’s profound grasp of the English language, The Miserable World features numerous misinterpretations that are attributable to the translator’s failure to understand some basic English concepts. In order to make sense out of this contradiction, this paper looks at both Su’s English learning career and the nature of his translation errors, and concludes that the highly fluent text of the Preface may probably have been polished by a native speaker of English. Finally, this paper concludes that Su had not fully mastered the English language: to handle the basic plot of an English novel might well have been within his power, but to give a more nuanced translation would have required a comprehension and linguistic skill that were beyond him. However, the purpose of this paper is not to deny Su’s English ability but rather to clarify the less-than-accurate, exaggerated descriptions of his English proficiency in current biographies.
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